What Is Male Candidiasis (Male Thrush)? What Is Penile Yeast Infection?

Candidiasis, also known as thrush, candidosis, moniliasis, and oidiomycosis, is a mycosis (fungal infections) caused by Candida albicans, one of the Candida species (all yeast). Candidiasis can occur in various parts of the body, including the male or female genital area. Thrush infections are relatively common in women and men. This article focuses on male thrush (penile yeast infection). Informally, male thrush is known as "jock itch". Candida naturally exists in several places in the body. When it is normally balanced by good bacteria, the level stays low and causes no problems. However, when this delicate balance is disturbed, the risk of developing a yeast infection rises significantly. The most common yeast infection is vaginal thrush. Male thrush or penile yeast infection is also fairly common. A male can become infected with thrush if he has sexual intercourse with an infected sexual partner. Treatment consists of over-the-counter (OTC) anti-fungal creams and ointments. People with a weak immune system may require closer medical supervision. There is a small risk of complication among patients with compromised immune systems - thecandidiasis might evolve into a more serious case of persistent infection called invasive candidiasis. Infection passes into the bloodstream and starts to spread throughout the body requiring hospitalization. According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary, Thrush fungus is: "A fungal species ordinarily a part of humans' normal gastrointestinal flora, which only becomes pathogenic when there is a disturbance in the balance of flora or in an impairment of the host defenses from other causes; resulting disease states may vary from limited to generalized cutaneous or mucocutaneous infections, to severe and fatal systemic disease including endocarditis, septicemia, and meningitis". Culture of the...

What Is Scabies? What Causes Scabies?

Scabies is a contagious skin condition caused by tiny mites called Sarcoptes scabiei. These mites burrow into the skin, then breed and lay their eggs, causing a rash and intense itchiness. Sufferers of scabies rarely know they have the condition until a number of weeks after initial infection; this means scabies infestations can spread quickly. Scabies is commonly seen as a condition brought about by poor living conditions and lack of personal hygiene, but there is no evidence that suggests this to be true. Scabies can affect anyone and can be treated with certain creams and lotions. There are some groups however that are at greater risk of having the condition. According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary, scabies is: 1. An eruption due to the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis; the female of the species burrows into the skin, producing a vesicular eruption with intense pruritus between the fingers, on the male or female genitalia, buttocks, and elsewhere on the trunk and extremities. 2. In animals, scabies or scab is usually applied to cutaneous acariasis in sheep, which may be caused by Sarcoptes, Psoroptes, or Chorioptes.   What are the signs and symptoms of scabies? A symptom is something the patient feels and reports, while a sign is something other people, such as the doctor, detect. For example, itchiness may be a symptom while a rash may be a sign. Sometimes the signs and symptoms of scabies do not become visible for up to six weeks after contracting the infection. The primary symptoms of scabies are a skin rash, and intense itching that worsens at night or after a hot shower or bath. The rash consists of small red...

What are Blackheads? How to Get Rid of Blackheads

A blackhead, or open comedo is a wide opening on the skin with a blackened mass of skin debris covering the opening. Despite their name, some blackheads can be yellowish in color. A comedo is a widened hair follicle which is filled with skin debris (keratin squamae), bacteria and oil (sebum). A closed comedo is a whitehead, while an open comedo is a blackhead. the plural of "comedo" is comedomes". Blackheads are said to be the first stage of acne. They form before bacteria invade the pores of the patient's skin. A blackhead can develop into a pimple, which is also known as a papule or pustule. Blackheads, and acne in general, usually develop after puberty, when hormone levels surge and reach the skin. The presence of higher levels of hormones in the skin triggers the stimulation of the sebaceous glands, which produce oily substances. The sebaceous glands produce too much oil in the pores, which accumulates and gets stuck. When the occluded oil is exposed to air it becomes black. Several conditions and circumstances can cause blackheads, or make them worse, such as the use of topical oils and make up. Blackheads can affect people with any type of skin, but are generally more common in those with oily skin. Blackheads on a man's nose What are the causes of blackheads The overproduction of oil is the main cause of the emergence of blackheads. This is likely to occur in a high proportion of humans during puberty. Spikes in hormone production can result in the high levels of DHT (dihydrotestosterone), a hormone which triggers overactivity in the oil glands, resulting in clogged pores. Clean skin - if the skin is not...

Tumors Continue Growing Even When Cells Get Old

Based on the knowledge that cancer cells grow indefinitely, the general belief is that senescence could act as a barrier againsttumor growth and has the potential of being used as a cancer treatment. According to findings published in the 19th January issue of the open-access journal PLoS Computational Biology, a collaboration between a cancer biologist from the University of Milano, Italy, and two physicists, from the National Research Council of Italy and from Cornell University, has shown that although cell senescence occurs spontaneously in melanoma cells, it does not stop their growth, which is sustained by a small population of cancer stem cells. The study examines the association between melanoma and senescence, which is the normal process in which cells decline and eventually stop duplicating after reaching maturity. The researchers observed the long-term evolution of melanoma cell populations by monitoring the number of senescent cells, and discovered a slowing in growth with the majority of the cells turning senescent after three months. However, growth did not stop and was eventually resumed at its initial rate until the senescent cells had nearly disappeared. The researchers applied a mathematical model of the experimental data using the cancer stem cell hypothesis, in which a sub-group of cancer cells multiply indefinitely, and therefore remain unaffected by senescence. These cancer stem cells produce a larger population of cancer cells, which are only able to replicate a certain number of times. The results of the model achieved an indirect confirmation that cancer stem cells are present in melanoma, an issue that remains to be controversial in the cancer research community. The researchers conclude that even though a large percentage of cancer cells...

Q: Are some people more attractive to mosquitoes?

A: Yes, certain traits can attract or repel mosquitoes. They are the sounds synonymous with an Australian barbecue: sizzling sausages, the hiss of a beer being opened, and of course, the constant slapping of flesh as an army of mosquitoes descends. But have you ever noticed that while you may be driven mad by hovering mozzies, others are completely unfazed. Is it possible mosquitoes prefer some people over others? Yes they do, says Dr Cameron Webb from Westmead Hospital's department of medical entomology in Sydney. And although the reasons behind their preferences are far from certain, it's likely to do with the chemicals in our breath and on our skin. Why the difference? Female mosquitoes are primarily attracted to our body heat and the carbon dioxide we breathe out, which indicate we are warm-blooded animals with the blood they need to develop fertile eggs. So the more carbon dioxide we emit, the more attractive we are to females looking for a protein hit. (Male mosquitoes don't bite). Larger people tend to emit more carbon dioxide than smaller people, as do pregnant women and those who exert themselves.This is why we are often annoyed most by mosquitoes after we play sports and are breathing heavily. Mosquitoes are also attracted to different chemicals on our skin, Webb says. "When mosquitoes get close to a person they make a decision on whether they bite or not based on essentially the smell of our skin, and that smell can vary from person to person because of different combinations of chemicals on the skin," he says. However, researchers are still uncertain which chemicals mosquitoes...
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