What Is AIDS? What Is HIV?

AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a disease caused by a virus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). The illness alters the immune system, making people much more vulnerable to infections and diseases. This susceptibility worsens as the disease progresses. HIV is found in the body fluids of an infected person (semen and vaginal fluids, blood and breast milk). The virus is passed from one person to another through blood-to-blood and sexual contact. In addition, infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivering the baby during childbirth, and through breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted in many ways, such as vaginal, oral sex, anal sex, blood transfusion, and contaminated hypodermic needles. Both the virus and the disease are often referred to together as HIV/AIDS. People with HIV have what is called HIV infection. As a result, some will then develop AIDS. The development of numerous opportunistic infections in an AIDS patient can ultimately lead to death. According to research, the origins of HIV date back to the late nineteenth or early twentieth century in west-central Africa. AIDS and its cause, HIV, were first identified and recognized in the early 1980s. There is currently no cure for HIV/AIDS. Treatments can slow the course of the disease - some infected people can live a long and relatively healthy life. Estimated HIV/AIDS prevalence among young adults (15-49) by country as of 2008. UNAIDS 2008 report What is the difference between HIV and AIDS? HIV is the virus which attacks the T-cells in the immune system. AIDS is the syndrome which appears in advanced stages of HIV infection. HIV is a virus. AIDS...

Frequent Urination – Causes And Treatments

Frequent urination, where you feel an urge to pass urine more often than usual, is not just a a nuisance and a cause of poor sleep, it can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition. Polyuria is a medical term that refers to the excessive passing of urine (frequent urination). Unfortunately many people soldier on, perhaps accepting it as something they have to put up with, or they don't think it is worth bothering the doctor about, or maybe they are scared it might signify something serious. But often, when they seek diagnosis and treatment, patients find the cause is not serious or harmful, and it is possible to return to normal urinary habits. For instance, frequent urination can result from drinking too many fluids, particularly those containing caffeine or alcohol. Pregnant women often have the condition, due to the enlarged uterus pressing on the bladder. However, should it be the case that frequent urination is a symptom of something more serious, then there is even more reason to seek medical attention, because the sooner it is diagnosed and treated, the greater the chance of successful treatment. This article first considers the nature of urination, and then some of the symptoms, causes, and treatments of frequent urination. Urine and Urination Urinary System Diagram 1. Urinary system: 2. Kidney, 3. Renal pelvis, 4. Ureter, 5. Urinary bladder, 6. Urethra. 7. Adrenal gland Vessels: 8. Renal artery & vein, 9. Inferior vena cava, 10. Abdominal aorta, 11. Common iliac artery & vein With transparency: 12. Liver, 13. Large intestine, 14. Pelvis Urine is a waste product made in the kidneys. The kidneys...

10 Neglected Tropical Diseases – Target For End Of Decade

The aim is to eliminate or at least control 10 neglected tropical diseases by 2020 - it is a public and private partnership, including 13 drug companies, the UK, US and United Arab Emirate Governments, the World Bank, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and some other worldwide organizations. The partners aim to work together to eliminate neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in countries where they are endemic. They have pledged to liaise closely with affected countries. According to WHO (World Health Organization), 1.4 billion people are affected by the ten NTDs; the majority of them live in the poorest countries in the world. In an official announcement made today at the Royal College of Physicians, London, the partners said they would combat NTDs by: Expanding or at least sustaining drug donation programs so that demand is met right through to the end of 2020. Share knowhow and new active ingredients to speed up R&D of new medications. The allocation of over $785 million to improve R&D efforts and support drug distribution and implementation programs. The endorsement of the "London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases". The Declaration promises a new level of commitment and collaboration in the tracking of progress. Bill Gates, co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, said: "Today, we have joined together to increase the impact of our investments and build on the tremendous progress made to date. This innovative approach must serve as a model for solving other global development challenges and will help millions of people build self-sufficiency and overcome the need for aid." The Gates Foundation says it is donating $363 million over...

India Polio-Free For One Year

India, which was once a major polio hotspot, has reported no new cases of the disease in just over 12 months, ever since a two-year old female case on 13th January, 2011, in the state of West Bengal. According to WHO (World Health Organization), India used to be known as the planet's "epicenter" of polio. WHO scientists say that as soon as all remaining lab investigations come back negative, India will be officially recognized as a nation that has stopped indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus, leaving just three countries with existing indigenous transmissions - Pakistan, Nigeria and Afghanistan. Despite this major achievement, scientists say India must not become complacent. Childhood immunity against wild poliovirus must be religiously maintained, as should nationwide surveillance. Unfortunately, and also rather worryingly, Pakistan and Afghanistan have had rising numbers of reported poliovirus infections over the last 12 months. Poliovirus found its way from Pakistan into China, re-infecting the country after it had been polio-free for over a decade. Nigeria, DR Congo, and Chad continue having active polio transmission. There have also been sporadic outbreaks in Central and West Africa over the past year. Polio will remain a global threat as long as it exists somewhere in the world, says WHO. Health experts and leaders throughout the world praised India for its dedication and commitment to the eradication of polio, as well as the millions of health workers, including vaccinators, community mobilizers, Rotarians, caregivers and parents who have been behind this drive over the last decade. Over 170 million kids under 5 are vaccinated annually in India - this includes 70 million in very high-risk areas. A...
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