What Is DHT (Dihydrotestosterone)? What Is DHT’s Role In Baldness?

DHT, which stands forDihydrotestosterone (5α-Dihydrotestosterone), is a male sex hormone, an androgen. 5α-reductase, an enzyme, synthesizes DHT in the adrenal glands, hair follicles, testes and prostate. Male and female adults can lose hair as a consequence of changes in the metabolism of androgen in the body - men more commonly than women. DHT plays a major role in hair loss. Male pattern baldness, also known as androgenic alopecia or androgenetic alopecia, is caused by the hair follicle's sensitivity to DHT. The follicles miniaturize (shrink), resulting in a shorter lifespan and the abnormal production of hair. The molecular formula for DHT is C19H30O2. The most important part of the hair follicle is the dermal papilla (papilla of hair), which is responsible for the growth of hair. The dermal papilla cells divide and differentiate to form new hair follicles. The papilla is in direct contact with the skin's blood capillaries, from which it gets its essential nutrients for proper hair follicle growth. The dermal papilla has a large number of androgen receptors (more in males than females). A hair follicle (image from Wikimedia Commons) When DHT gets to the dermal papilla, it undermines the absorption of vital nutrients required for healthy hair follicles. Hair follicles have resting and growing phases - without propernutrition, their resting stages get longer while their growing phases get shorter. What is Miniaturization? Miniaturization in this text refers to the progressive shrinking the hair follicle. Hair grows for shorter periods, becomes lighter, finer and smaller, until it eventually reaches the vellus stage. Vellus hair is light-colored, short, thin and very fine hair - it is barely noticeable and grows on most of the human...

Genetic Clue Discovered For Why Women Outlive Men

A new study of mitochondrial DNA in fruit flies offers a number of clues that might explain why females tend to outlive males across much of the animal kingdom, including humans. Researchers from Monash University in Australia and Lancaster University in the UK, write about their work in the 2 August online issue of Current Biology. They found male fruit flies appear to have mutations in their mitochondrial DNA that affect how fast they age and how long they live. Scientists use fruit flies as models for studies in genes and aging because their biological processes are remarkably similar to that of other animals, such as humans, and with a lifespan of about a month, it doesn't take too long to investigate generational effects. Senior author Damian Dowling, a research fellow in the Monash School of Biological Sciences, told the press: "All animals possess mitochondria, and the tendency for females to outlive males is common to many different species. Our results therefore suggest that the mitochondrial mutations we have uncovered will generally cause faster male aging across the animal kingdom." "Intriguingly, these same mutations have no effects on patterns of aging in females. They only affect males," he added. Mitochondria are special subunits of cells, about the same size as bacteria, that provide the energy for life. They combine sugar and oxygen into adenosine triphosphate or ATP, molecular packets of energy that are usable by cells. Mitochondria have their own DNA that is quite separate from the cellular DNA in the nucleus of the cell. And, unlike cellular DNA, which is inherited from the sperm and egg that fuse to make the new...

Testosterone Does Not Necessarily Wane With Age

For many men, testosterone levels drop as they get older, but new research presented at a conference this week suggests this is not necessarily a consequence of age itself, but more to do with behavior, such as smoking, and changes in health, such asobesity and depression. In men, the hormone testosterone is made in the testicles and controls the development of their sexual characteristics. It influences wellbeing, sexual function and fertility and also helps maintain a healthy body composition, develop muscle bulk, sufficient levels of red blood cells, and protect bone density. Study co-author Dr Gary Wittert, professor of medicine at the University of Adelaide, told the press: "It is critical that doctors understand that declining testosterone levels are not a natural part of aging and that they are most likely due to health-related behaviors or health status itself," he added. Past research has shown that many men have low levels of testosterone, and some have linked depression and low testosterone, but few population studies have followed the same group of men over time, said Wittert. For the latest study, the researchers analyzed testosterone measurements in more than 1,500 men who had their hormone levels tested twice, with a five year gap between clinic visits. All the samples were tested at the same point in time before, and then after, the five-year gap, said Wittert. Wittert and colleagues only included 1,382 men in their analysis because they took out the ones who were on medication or had health conditions that affect hormone levels. The men they included had an average age of 54 (range was 35 to 80 years). They found...

What Is Male Candidiasis (Male Thrush)? What Is Penile Yeast Infection?

Candidiasis, also known as thrush, candidosis, moniliasis, and oidiomycosis, is a mycosis (fungal infections) caused by Candida albicans, one of the Candida species (all yeast). Candidiasis can occur in various parts of the body, including the male or female genital area. Thrush infections are relatively common in women and men. This article focuses on male thrush (penile yeast infection). Informally, male thrush is known as "jock itch". Candida naturally exists in several places in the body. When it is normally balanced by good bacteria, the level stays low and causes no problems. However, when this delicate balance is disturbed, the risk of developing a yeast infection rises significantly. The most common yeast infection is vaginal thrush. Male thrush or penile yeast infection is also fairly common. A male can become infected with thrush if he has sexual intercourse with an infected sexual partner. Treatment consists of over-the-counter (OTC) anti-fungal creams and ointments. People with a weak immune system may require closer medical supervision. There is a small risk of complication among patients with compromised immune systems - thecandidiasis might evolve into a more serious case of persistent infection called invasive candidiasis. Infection passes into the bloodstream and starts to spread throughout the body requiring hospitalization. According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary, Thrush fungus is: "A fungal species ordinarily a part of humans' normal gastrointestinal flora, which only becomes pathogenic when there is a disturbance in the balance of flora or in an impairment of the host defenses from other causes; resulting disease states may vary from limited to generalized cutaneous or mucocutaneous infections, to severe and fatal systemic disease including endocarditis, septicemia, and meningitis". Culture of the...

He Thought He Was A Man, But He Was Also A Woman

A prominent Denver photographer who thought he was a man, found out after an ultrasound screen to examine a kidney stone that he was also female. He has lived his whole life as a man, sometimes receiving comments about some female traits, only to find out that he was, in fact, born intersex. Steve Crecelius told Fox News that he remembers secretly putting on his mother's clothes and applying makeup when he was younger. He went on to explain that he had frequently identified with being female, and from a very young age - but he has lived his life as a male until a few years ago. Steve told Fox News: "When I was 17, I was working my first part-time job at a TV station as a floor cameraman and the person in charge said to me, 'You know, you walk like a queer.' And I thought I was hiding who I was, and I wasn't. I had a kidney stone and we're in the emergency room. The nurse is reading theultrasound and says, 'Huh, this says you're a female'." What is intersex (intersexuality)? According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary, Intersexuality means: "The condition of having both male and female characteristics; being intermediate between the sexes." Intersex refers to a group of conditions, often termed DSDs (disorders of sexual development) - there is a discrepancy between the appearance of the external sexual organs and the internal ones. The older terms hermaphroditism or pseudohermaphroditism are rarely used by healthcare professionals, and have given way to intersex or intersexuality. The revelation validated everything Steve felt inside When his intersexuality was discovered, Steve said that it validated everything he had always felt inside. Initially, the...
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